E ISSN: 2583-049X

International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Studies

Volume 3, Issue 2, 2023

Tobacco Smoking in Gezira state, Sudan, Results from STEPS survey 2017-2020

Author(s): Suleiman Gamal Elgorashi, Magda Elhadi, Moawya Elbalal, Moawya Ahmed



Tobacco smoking is a risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO says that up to half of smokers die from tobacco usage. Various studies investigated the prevalence and association of tobacco smoking in Sudan, but few studies reported Gezira state.


To determine the magnitude of smoking and its association in Gezira state, Sudan.


Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, cross-sectional, multi-stage clustered sample survey was conducted in 2017-2020 on 648 participants aged 18–64 years. Socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors, Physical anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose levels were collected in 3 steps.

Results and Conclusion

The study showed a smoking prevalence of 10.76 %. There was no significant association between residence smoking and no association between smoking and glucose or cholesterol levels.

However, there was an association between smoking and gender but no association between smoking and age groups or marriage.

There was an association between snuff and gender, age, and residence but no association with blood glucose or cholesterol.

There was no association between residence and second-hand smoke at home whereas there is an association with second hand-smoking at work,

Also, the research found no association between secondhand smoke at work or home, and gender or marriage. However, no association between secondhand smoke at home or work and blood pressure.

These data could be useful in the formulation and advocacy of NCD policy and action plans in Gezira.

Keywords: Gezira, NCDs, Smoking, Tobacco

Pages: 234-241

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